La Salle history prof talks about corruption during Marcos and Cory regimes:”MAS LUMAKI ang korapsyon pagkatapos ng panahon ni Marcos”

Former President Ferdinand Marcos has been the most maligned leader in the country’s history.

A lot of books and video documentaries being fed to the gullible public since 1986 have portrayed Marcos as a ruthless dictator and worse, bankrupted the country’s economy by stealing billions of dollars from the national coffers.

Bear in mind that those bad mouthing President Marcos in whatever platforms available to them have their own vested interests.

But thanks to social media!

Academicians who were not given the chance to speak of their opinion on mainstream media, on whatever platforms that the public have access to since they don’t subscribe to the narrative of the anti-Marcos groups have found their voice now.

Speaking of academicians who write with an unbiased lens on topics about politics and Philippine history on Facebook, La Salle history professor Van Ybiernas tops the list in my book.

Van Ybiernas write on Facebook posted today, March 10, 2019 perfectly demonstrates my point.

In the post, Ybiernas credited the early part of the Marcos rule for having one of fastest growing economies in Asia hence, emboldening Marcos to usher the era of the age of infrastructure never seen Philippine history to make the Philippine grow even faster.

But Ybiernas also noted that Marcos failed to foresee that world economic crisis in the 80’s.

The Philippine economy dependent on exports suffered greatly because prices of agricultural products (sugar) which was our primary export saw an all-time low. The same thing happened also to our secondary exports like garments and textiles(Crispa, U-Tex).

Ybiernas surmised that Marcos was ill-advised by his economic team, making him think that the world economic crisis was only short-lived but turned out to be false and borrowed more money to push the economic growth of the country pre-crisis era.

Ybiernas lamented that the oil crisis at that time was too great to bear for a country reliant on oil to produce electricity.

Meanwhile, Ybiernas said that it cannot be denied that Marcos administration was plagued with corruption issues, including his cronies whom he accused of getting kickbacks from government infrastructure projects.

Ybiernas stated that corruption was largely overlooked by the public before the crisis since this was hardly felt because of the fast growing Philippine economy.

But when the economic crisis arrived, the issue of corruption suddenly became a huge issue and the public found it scandalous as the Marcos family and their cronies lived a lavish lifestyle while the masses lived in poverty.

However Ybiernas believed the Philippine economy did not collapse because of allegation of corruption since the Philippine economy was huge for to be sank by plunder.

Despite the economic crisis, Marcos continued borrowing money because of three reasons: 1. the US offered loans to Marcos 2. Marcos believed the economic crisis would not last that long 3. Marcos that public spending will help the economy because it generates jobs for the people.

On nagging question whether Marcos should have stopped borrowing money?

Ybiernas said it is hard to say since the country was really hit hard by the world economic crisis since our economy was export-oriented.

He believed that if Marcos stopped borrowing, the country’s economic growth would slowed even more.

On the issue of corruption, Ybiernas wished there was history of corruption in Philippine history showing the trajectory of corruption during the Marcos regime versus the regime pre and post-Marcos era.

Ybiernas believed that corruption in the Philippines got worse during the Cory administration because corruption became democratic: corruption was prevalent from top to bottom.

You may read the full post below now.

Presidente si Ferdinand Marcos ng Pilipinas mula 1965 hanggang 1986.

Noong mga unang bahagi ng kanyang pagka-pangulo, napaka-simple ng ating ekonomiya: isa tayo sa mga fastest growing economies of Asia (kagaya ngayon) kaya’t gumastos nang gumastos si Marcos sa infra (kagaya ng ginagawa ngayon) para lalo pang pabilisin ang paglago ng ekonomiya.

Ang problema lang ni Marcos, hindi nya nakita ang mangyayaring pandaigdigang krisis sa ekonomiya, lalong-lalo na noong 1980s.

Bumagsak ang ating exports dahil bumagsak ang presyo ng mga produktong agrikultural (hello asukal!) na pangunahing exports natin. Maski yung mga secondary exports natin sa area ng manufacturing kagaya ng textiles at garments (kaya nga maraming textile/garments teams sa PBA noon: Crispa, U-Tex, etc.) ay bumagsak din dahil sarado ang mga merkado para sa kanila.

Siguro dahil sa palpak na advice na ibinibigay ng economic managers ni Marcos sa kanya, inisip nya na panandalian lang ang krisis kaya ang solusyon ni Apo ay mangutang para patakbuhin pa rin ang ekonomiya sa bilis nito bago ang krisis.

Kaso mabigat talaga ang krisis, lalo na sa petrolyo. Anlaki talaga ng itinaas ng presyo ng produktong petrolyo kaya nagkanda-letse-letse ang ating bansa kasi umaasa tayo sa petrolyo para sa ating kuryente.

Hindi rin naman maitatanggi —pasensya na Marcos loyalists— na may pandarambong na naganap. Ang tingin ko dyan, talagang kalakaran na na pumu-porsiyento ang mga cronies at si Apo sa mga government projects. Kaso, bago ang krisis, okay lang yan kasi masigla ang ekonomiya. Habang may krisis, aba’y talagang nakaka-eskandalo kasi habang naghihirap ang bansa, napaka-garbo ng buhay ng pamilya Marcos at ng mga cronies nila.

PERO AKO’Y NANINIWALA NA HINDI BUMAGSAK ANG EKONOMIYA DAHIL SA PANDARAMBONG. Masyadong malaki ang ekonomiya para ilubog ng pandarambong. Nakaka-eskandalo lang yung makita mong napakaluho ng buhay ng pamilya Marcos habang naghihirap ang bayan.

Anyway, tuloy-tuloy lang sa pangungutang si Marcos kasi: (1) pinauutang lang siya ng US; (2) di nya malamang naisip na magtatagal ang krisis; (3) iniisip nyang makakatulong sa ekonomiya ang paggastos ng gobyerno .

Nagtuloy-tuloy ang krisis hanggang sa makabawi ang buong mundo noong mga 1990s na.

Iyan ang kasaysayan (sa abot ng aking kaalaman).

Dapat bang tumigil sa pangungutang si Marcos kasi alam nyang lubog na tayo sa utang? Mahirap sagutin kasi lugmok talaga ang ekonomiya kasi bagsak ang exports natin. Tandaan na export-oriented talaga ang ekonomiya natin. Ngayon na lang naman na malakas ang ating spending kasi napakalaki ng populasyon natin ngayon at saka napakalaki ng ipinapasok na dolyar ng mga OFWs.

Ibig kong sabihin, kung hindi nangutang ng nangutang si Marcos, mas lalo pang bumagal ang takbo ng ekonomiya natin dahil sa krisis.

Siyempre, isyu ang pandarambong.
Maganda sana kung makita ang kasaysayan ng korapsyon sa bansa para makita yung trajectory kung talaga nga bang mas malaki ang kupitan (bilang porsiyento ng ekonomiya) sa panahon ni Marcos kumpara sa mga nauna at sumunod na panahon.

Actually, ang suspetsa ko, MAS LUMAKI ang korapsyon pagkatapos ng panahon ni Marcos kasi noong panahon ni Apo siya at yung mga cronies lang ang kumikita. Pero simula sa panahon ni Tita Cory (sa tingin ko) naging mas demokratiko ang nakawan: lahat na, mula taas hanggang pinakababa ay nagnanakaw.

Although, napakaraming literatura (international studies) sa korapsyon (mga early 2000s ito; hindi ko na sinundan yung literatura pagkatapos ko magsulat ng isang papel tungkol dito noong 2009) na nagsasabing nasa bandang gitna tayo pagdating sa korapsyon: halos 90 porsiyento ng mga proyekto ang ninanakaw sa mga bansa sa Africa; 40-60 porsiyento tayo; nasa 10-20 porsiyento naman ang Korea.

Sana may mag-aral tungkol dito…

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